Benutzer-Werkzeuge

Webseiten-Werkzeuge


commands-general-tools

Dies ist eine alte Version des Dokuments!


Sammlung nützlicher Befehle

General Tool Commands

Development

fetch all git branches and prune remotely deleted branches

git remote update origin --prune

man git-remote

delete all files and directories in a Git work tree which are under gitignore (e.g. for removing builds)

get number of commits in a Git repository

## total number (in all branches)
git rev-list --all | wc -l
## number per committer
git shortlog -s -n --all

man git-rev-parse man git-shortlog

show predefined macros of a compiler

gcc -dM -E -x c /dev/null
g++ -dM -E -x c /dev/null
clang -dM -E -x c /dev/null
clang++ -dM -E -x c /dev/null

OpenSSL

show details for a certificate file

# certificate has PEM format (Pretty Enhanced Mail)
openssl x509 -in cert-file.pem -text -noout -fingerprint
# certificate has DER format (Distinguished Encoding Rules)
openssl x509 -inform der -in cert-file.cer -text -noout -fingerprint

man x509

show details for a private key file

openssl rsa -in privkey.pem -text -noout

man rsa

show details of a certificate signing request

openssl req -in csr.pem -noout -text

man req

extract certificate and private key from PKCS#12 file

openssl pkcs12 -in yourP12File.pfx -clcerts -nokeys -out publicCert.pem
openssl pkcs12 -in yourP12File.pfx -nocerts -out privateKey.pem

man pkcs12

create a self-signed certificate

openssl genrsa -out privKey.pem
openssl req -new -x509 -key privKey.pem -out cert.pem

man genrsa man req

AES-256-CBC benchmark

## with AES-NI (if available)
openssl speed -evp aes-256-cbc
## without AES-NI
OPENSSL_ia32cap="~0x200000200000000" openssl speed -evp aes-256-cbc
## multithread
openssl speed -multi 2 -evp aes-256-cbc

man speed

parse a file's ASN.1 content

openssl asn1parse -in someCertOrKeyOrOther.pem

man asn1parse

Network Stuff

test a proxy server

curl test.schrimpe.de -x <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]> | w3m -dump -T text/html
# for Squid running on localhost that's:
curl test.schrimpe.de -x 127.0.0.1:3128 | w3m -dump -T text/html

man curl

measure duration of HTTP request

curl https://test.schrimpe.de/ -w %{time_connect}:%{time_starttransfer}:%{time_total}

man curl

check whether a TCP connection can be established with a three second timeout

nc -w3 -z 192.168.0.1 80 ## return code zero on success

man nc

mDNS query

dig somehostname.local @224.0.0.251 -p 5353

man dig

verify DNSSEC chain of a domain

## obtain the root keys first
drill -S -k /usr/local/etc/unbound/root.key kuehrmann.de
## if your resolver does not support DNSSEC use e.g. Quad9
drill -S -k /usr/local/etc/unbound/root.key kuehrmann.de @9.9.9.9

check whether your DNS resolver discards invalid DNSSEC domains

dig www.dnssec-failed.org

scan all TCP ports of a host

nmap -p- somehost.example.com

man nmap

File Stuff

count lines of a certain file type recursively (e.g. C++ source files)

find . -name "*.cpp" -print0 | xargs -0 wc -l
find . -type l ! -exec test -e {} \; -print

create checksums of directory tree and verify them

# create checksums of directory tree
rhash -r --md5 /backups/ > /tmp/backups.md5
rhash -r --crc32 /backups/ > /tmp/backups.sfv
# check one file containing MD5 hashes
rhash -c /tmp/backups.md5
# check all SFV, MD5 and SHA-256 files in directory tree
rhash -cr --crc-accept=sfv,md5,sha256 /tmp/directory/

man rhash

create a file with specific timestamps

touch -a -m -t 202612180130.09 fileName.ext
## -a = accessed
## -m = modified
## -t = timestamp - use [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss] time format

man touch

handle sparse files

## create a 100 GiB sparse file
truncate -s 100G fileName.ext
## copy sparse files (works also from/to block devices; 4k should match the block size used within you sparse file)
dd if=inputSparse.ext of=outputSparse.ext bs=4096 conv=sparse

man truncate man dd

Disk and Partition Stuff

show information about partitions of disks (on Linux)

file -s /dev/sd*

disk images over SSH

## from a local disk send compressed image to remote host
dd if=/dev/sda bs=1048576 | pv | lz4 | ssh user@dest.example.com "dd of=/backup/basil-sda.img.lz4"
## to a local disk receive compressed image from remote host
ssh user@src.example.com "cat /backup/basil-sda.img.lz4" | lz4cat | pv | dd of=/dev/sda bs=1048576

Conversion Stuff

make a big image small with ImageMagick

convert big_input.tif -resize 256x256 small_output.png

man convert man ImageMagick

format XML

## prettify XML (proper indentation)
xmllint --format input_ugly.xml > output_pretty.xml
## uglify XML (remove unnecessary whitespace)
xmllint --noblanks input_pretty.xml > output_ugly.xml

C array of the content of some file

xxd -i someFile.bin

man xxd

Unix timestamp to human readable time

## with BSD date
date -r 1523210382
## with GNU date
date -d @1523210382

man date man date

Bourne Again Shell

delete entries from the command history (e.g. to remove passwords)

## show the current history
history
## determine the entry number, in this example the desired entry was #501
history -d 501

avoid history recording for one interactive shell completely

unset HISTFILE
Cookies helfen bei der Bereitstellung von Inhalten. Durch die Nutzung dieser Seiten erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden, dass Cookies auf Ihrem Rechner gespeichert werden. Weitere Information
commands-general-tools.1527069879.txt.gz · Zuletzt geändert: 2018/05/23 12:04 von alex